Bribery and corruption are two words that we often hear in the news, but what do they actually mean? In this blog post, we will discuss the differences between bribery and corruption and some of the common forms of misconduct that officeholders often engage in.
What is Bribery?
Bribery is the “offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official, or other person, in charge of a public or legal duty” [Source].
Effects of Bribery
The consequences of bribery include misallocation of resources , and businesses that would not have been qualified to receive government contracts frequently obtain them, the creation of a tax system that benefits the wealthy and well-connected, the employment of unqualified individuals and the promotion of unskilled persons., public sector theft, an economic decline since qualified people are not given a chance to participate, social values being shunned, mismanagement of funds, the funding of worthless projects, and prioritization of meaningless things while neglecting vital concerns.
What is Anti-Bribery?
Anti-bribery entails opposing or inhibiting bribery [Source].
What is Corruption?
Corruption is a “form of dishonesty or a criminal offense which is undertaken by a person or an organization which is entrusted with a position of authority, to acquire illicit benefits or abuse power for one’s gain” [Source].
Effects of Corruption
The effects of corruption include “undermining the sustainable development goals, economic loss and inefficiency, poverty and inequality, personal loss, intimidation and inconvenience, public and private sector dysfunctionality, failures in infrastructure, rigged economic and political systems, impunity and partial justice, rising illiberal populism, and human rights violations” [Source].
What is Anti-Corruption?
Anti-corruption refers to activities aimed at stopping corrupt tendencies [Source].
Difference between Bribery and Corruption
The difference between corruption and bribery is that, while all bribery is a form of corruption, not all corruption is bribery. Also, bribery means offering something in need of a favor, but corruption can extend to selfish gains such as mismanaging funds.
Corruption also involves embezzlement, fraud, nepotism, collusion, and abuse of power.
Similarities between bribery and corruption
Similarities between bribery and corruption are linked to how these terms point to misconduct in a certain position. Both bribery and corruption go against social and business ethics propagated across the globe. Such conduct violates human rights in terms of equality among people in economic, political, or social activities.
Grand Corruption vs. Petty Corruption
“Petty corruption involves the abuse of entrusted power in exchange favors or small sums of money. Grand Corruption involves major political or executive actors whose illegal activities subvert the legal, political, and economic aims of entire countries or corporations” [Source].
Petty corruption involves public servants and managers responsible for smaller authority departments. Grand corruption is usually done by higher-ranking government officials and elected officials in offices. Grand corruption is linked to abusing national resources, which is more devastating than petty corruption, which might cripple a small department. Grand corruption has dire effects and calls for a severe sentence and impeachment from office, while petty corruption may result in imprisonment.
What is Grand and Petty Corruption?
Grand corruption is “the abuse of high-level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many” [Source], and petty corruption is “Everyday abuse of entrusted power by public officials in their interactions with ordinary citizens, who often are trying to access basic goods or services in places like hospitals, schools, police departments and other agencies” [Source].
What are the 3 types of Corruption?
“The most common types or categories of corruption are supply versus demand corruption, grand versus petty corruption, conventional versus unconventional corruption and public versus private corruption” [Source].
What is an example of Petty Corruption?
A typical example of petty corruption is in school or college enrollment, where students must pay bribes to school officials.
What is an example of Grand Corruption?
A popular example of grand corruption involves Ukrainian ex-President Viktor Yanukovych and his cronies, who were accused of stealing the US $7.5 billion [Source].