Mohism was a highly influential philosophical, social, and religious movement. It was initially founded and began to proliferate around 479–221 BCE. The movement gained traction in the Warring States era during ancient China. The teachings of Mozi founded Mohism. This scholar and philosopher lived during fl. ca. 430 BCE. Mozi’s followers are often recognized for initiating philosophical argumentation and debate in ancient China. This movement brought the tradition of engagement to China, like Socrates in ancient Greece. This group taught leaders the need for a reflective search to attain a sufficient and objective moral standard. The Mohists were known to provide step-by-step, tightly reasoned arguments for their views. Some scholars saw their ideas as simplistic or resting on unproven assumptions; however, they significantly impact how China formulates its explicit ethical and political theories. This governance system is known to be the world’s earliest form of consequentialism.
This leadership method is remarkably sophisticated and based on a plurality of intrinsic goods required to improve collective human welfare. Mohism is a highly pragmatic philosophy that is non-representational in theory. It covers paradigms such as language and knowledge. These scholars helped create a rudimentary idea of analogical argumentation. This has influenced the leadership debates in China. Scholars argue they played a critical part in emphasizing, articulating and shaping many central concepts in classical Chinese philosophical literature.
Mohism is not considered a religion by many because of its logicality. Mohists do not believe in a higher entity such as God; however, they work with a sophisticated semantic theory, epistemology and consequentialist ethics. Their founder, Mozi, taught that the world operates through a theory of analogical reasoning and mereological ontology. This education helped Mohists to spend their time researching diverse fields such as geometry, mechanics, optics, and economics. They are known for assisting ancient China with technical problems raised by semantics and consequentialist ethics. Scholars argue that the rigorous arguments that develop Mohist doctrines are central elements of a unified ethical and political order.
They function based on a consequentialist ethic that maximizes the benefits for all citizens using impartial concern for all. This leadership principle helps promote active opposition to military aggression and injury to others. Ancient China is often described as a nation with devotion to utility and frugality. Mohism has helped influence the country against having excess waste and luxury, leading to lower efficiency. The meritocracy system approved by Mohism allows garnered support for a centralized, authoritarian. The basis of this argument lies in the state being led by a virtuous, benevolent and sovereign leader. Surrounding the leader should be a hierarchical, merit-based bureaucracy that respects and is obedient to the wishes of Heaven.
In Mohism, Heaven is known as Tian. This reference translates to the “sky” in English. Leaders characterize Mohist ethics and epistemology as following the wishes of the “sky”. This concept can make it hard to find objective standards. These standards are required to guide the judgment and action of leaders reliably. A lack of leadership objectivity can lead to impartially made decisions. Mohism believes that following the wishes of Heaven is necessary for the leader to produce beneficial, morally correct decisions.
Mohism also believes that humans are made with good intrinsic properties. The philosophy teaches that people are naturally motivated to do what they perceive as correct and morally right. The key differentiating factor between a good and bad person is believed to be a proper moral education. When this education is available, societies and their leaders tend to conform to the correct ethical norms. Mohism is a philosophy that advocates for the power of discussion and persuasion. These techniques are often used to solve ethical problems and motivate action. Mohists always look for objective answers through research and defend these through inquiry. This tactic is similar and forms the basis of today’s scientific method.
Christianity is considered to be the most widely practised religion globally. The belief is believed to have over 2 billion followers. Christianity is a religion that centres its faith around the birth, life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. A small group of disciples started this ancient religion; however, it spread and was adopted very quickly. The teachings of Christianity are found globally and are often believed to be one of the most successful spiritual/philosophical missions in the history of humanity.
Believing in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah is the core requirement to be a Christian. Christianity teaches that God anointed Jesus as the saviour of humanity. The religion’s believers preach of Jesus’ return as the fulfilment of messianic prophecies. This belief highly differs from the pragmatic approach of Mohists, who believe in the ‘sky’ or ‘heaven’ as opposed to a messiah.
Death and resurrection
Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection is the cornerstone of the Christian faith. This event is described in the Holy Bible in 1 Corinthians verse 15. The two events are considered the most critical events in history as they represent human salvation. Christian doctrine and theology base their arguments on these occurrences. According to these authors, Jesus was crucified until he died, was buried in a tomb, and rose from the dead after three days. Jesus was then seen ascending to Heaven. Christians commemorate this event through worship services and have holidays to celebrate it, such as Good Friday and Easter Sunday. Christians believe this event demonstrated that Jesus has power over life and death. It is considered a signal that there is the authority and capacity to give people eternal life.
Salvation in the Bible refers to our rescue from the consequences of sin. Our sin has created a barrier between us and God, and the result of sin is death (Romans 6: 23). God rescued humankind through Christ by sacrificing his Son on the cross. Jesus’ death on the cross and subsequent resurrection resulted in salvation. By defeating death, Jesus paved the way for our salvation. Christians receive salvation, by putting complete faith in Jesus Christ. This means repentance, or a change of heart and mind about sin and Christ Himself, as well as calling on the name of the Lord for help.