Mohism is a Chinese philosophy that teaches principles of ethics, logic, rational thought, and science. It was introduced by academic scholars who studied under the Chinese scholar and philosopher Mozi during c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC. The core teachings focus on altruism, unbiased respect, and concern for all people. The instructions preach the importance of this regardless of relations or affiliations. Mohism became popular around the time of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism. Mohism was considered a danger to Confucianism and Taoism during 770–221 BC.
Mohism’s most famous teaching is “universal love”. It speaks on the importance of inclusive love and care. Edward Craig referred to this as impartial care based on ethics and morality. It increased because of its highly structured political organization. Like Taoism, they hired out their services to help realize ethical ideals. Political structures were built that operated through a network of local groups placed in every powerful kingdom of China. The educational and working classes fill these units.
Mohists use their teachings to develop sciences of fortification and statecraft. They assist government leadership in attaining efficient agricultural production. Their legal knowledge was powerful, helping these scholars write the land’s inheritance laws. Mohists quickly became advisers to the state.
The key pillars of Mohism are:
Caring and impartiality
A philosophy of honest caring. All humans should equally look after each other. Indiscriminate caring is one of the essential virtues required to be deemed righteous in Mohism. The founder Mozi often spoke about the need for everyone to deserve material benefits and be protected from physical harm equally. Mohism is led by a constant moral guide that is similar to utilitarianism. The honest focus is centred around the need to promote and encourage citizen policy and behaviour that provides the maximum general utility of all society.
What is beneficial to the world should always be prioritized. This philosophy helps minimize harm and provides a good governance model for societies. The actions carried out by leaders should benefit many people. The hierarchy believes in order, material wealth, and increasing the population.
Mohism teaches that society should operate as an organized organism. This model prevents unnecessary waste and inefficiency. It argues that societal conflict arises through the absence of moral uniformity. The philosophy believes that a working definition of right and wrong is required.
Mohism argues that social mobility is decreased by giving authority over essential government responsibilities to one based on their bloodline. The disregard for one’s capabilities in leadership reduces leadership proximity to talented people.
The Taoism philosophical writings share indigenous Chinese ideas and thinking. The fundamental principle is to live in harmony with the Tao. The central teachings are found in the Tao Te Ching book. The authors are Laozi (老子) and Zhuangzi. These individuals provided keystone works of Taoism.
The Tao is a sacred term in this religion that refers to the source of everything. It is considered the ultimate principle underlying human reality. Tao is critical for achieving perfection through self-cultivation. Many Taoist techniques taught require students to become one with the unplanned rhythms of the Tao. Taoist ethics often emphasize “Wu Wei”. This concept outlines the relevance of action without intention. The key is to understand naturalness, simplicity and spontaneity. These essential elements serve the three treasures: compassion, frugality, and humility.
Taoism originated around the 4th century BCE. The central cosmological notions were derived from the School of Yinyang. This group considered themselves naturalists and pioneers of ancient Chinese texts. Taoism, like Mohism, had a powerful impact on Chinese culture. Taoists and Mohists are two of China’s five central religious doctrines officially recognized.
The key pillars of Taoism are:
Simplicity, Patience, Compassion
These are the three great treasures of Taoism. They represent the code for simple human actions and thoughts. Doing the basics is key to managing activities, relationships, and self-worth. This path allows students to return to the source of being.
Taoism believes it is essential to follow the natural order of events. A key phrase is “When nothing is done, nothing is left undone.” It explains the concept of Wu Wei. It teaches that uncontrived action or natural non-intervention is key to a peaceful life. Avoid going against the conditions and allow for the natural course to occur.
To live a peaceful life, it is vital to accept that nothing can be done to alter the past. Taoism believes the only true constants in life are change and death. Understanding and getting these facts of life can provide you with freedom.
Taoism believes in yin & yang. It teaches that all things carry the yin (femininity) and the yang (masculinity). Embracing the two of these elements allows humans to neutralize energy, therefore, bringing them into harmony.